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Kaminuza 10 za mbere zikomeye ku isi

Ibigo by’ubushakashatsi Times Higher Education na Forbes byakoze urutonde rwa za Kaminuza 10 za mbere zikomeye kurusha izindi ku isi mu mwaka wa 2023.

Urwo rutonde rushingiye ku bipimo ngenderwaho 13 byerekana neza imikorere ya kaminuza mu ngingo enye z’ingenzi zirimo imyigishirize, ubushakashatsi, ihererekanyabumenyi ndetse n’ikizere kaminuza ifitiwe mu ruhando mpuzamahanga Icyo kizere kirebwaho ni icy’abanyeshuri, abarimu, inzobere n’abagize ubutegetsi bw’ibihugu hirya no hino ku isi.

Hashingiwe kuri ibyo bipimo, kaminuza 10 za mbere zikomeye ku isi zikurikirana ku buryo bukurikira:

  1. University of Oxford

Kaminuza ya Oxford ni kaminuza y’ubushakashatsi ifite icyicaro mu Bwongereza. Hari amakuru avuga ko iyo Kaminuza yatangiye kuva mu 1096 ikaba kaminuza ya kera cyane ku isi ikoresha ururimi rw’ icyongereza. Ni Kaminuza yatangiye gukomera  mu 1167ubwo umwami Henry II yabuzaga abanyeshuri b’Abongereza kujya kwiga muri Kaminuza ya Paris.

Iyi kaminuza igizwe n’amashuri makuru yigenga mirongo itatu n’icyenda.

Kaminuza ya Oxford yigishije abanyeshuri benshi bazwi cyane, barimo ba minisitiri b’intebe b’Ubwongereza 30 ndetse n’abakuru b’ibihugu na za guverinoma benshi ku isi.

Kuva mu myaka irenga icumi  ikurikiranye Kaminuza Oxford yagiye igaruka  muri kaminuza eshanu za mbere ku isi ku rutonde rwa Times Higher Education ndetse na Forbes.

  1. Harvard University

Kaminuza ya Harvard ni kaminuza yigenga ya Ivy League iherereye i Cambridge muri Leta ya Massachusetts, imwe mu zigize Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika. Yashinzwe mu 1636 yitirirwa umugiraneza wayo wa mbere, John Harvard.  Ni cyo kigo cya kera cyane mu mashuri makuru na za Kaminuza muri Amerika.

Iyi kaminuza igizwe n’amashami icumi y’amasomo hakiyongeraho n’ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi cya Harvard Radcliffe Institute.

Umutungo bwite wa Kaminuza ya Harvard ufite agaciro ka miliyari 50.7 z’amadolari, ikaba Kaminuza ya mbere ikize cyane ku isi.

Isomero rya Kaminuza ya Harvard ni ryo rinini ku isi rigizwe n’amashami 79 afite ibitabo bibarirwa muri miliyoni 20.

Harvard yarangijemo  abarimu, n’abashakashatsi bakomeye cyane ku rwego rw’isi  barimo abaherwe 188 batunze miliyari nyinshi z’amadolari, 8 babaye ba  perezida ba Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, abakuru b’ibihugu byinshi, abatsindiye igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel, n’abandi.

  1. University of Cambridge

Kaminuza ya Cambridge ni kaminuza ihereye i Cambridge, mu Bwongereza. Yashinzwe mu 1209. Ishingwa ry’iyi kaminuza ryakurikiranye n’amakimbirane y’intiti zo muri Kaminuza ya Oxford n’abaturage bo muri uwo mujyi.

Kaminuza ya Cambridge ikubiyemo amashuri 31 yigenga yigenga n’amashami arenga 150.

Mu banyeshuri barangije muri kaminuza ya Cambridge harimo abakinnyi 194 batsindiye imidari mu mikino Olempike hamwe n’abantu benshi bafite amateka akomeye kandi bagiye bagaragaza impinduka nyinshi mu nzego babarizwamo.

 

  1. Stanford University

Kaminuza ya Stanford ni kaminuza yigenga iherereye i Stanford, muri Leta ya Californiya, muri Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika. Iki kigo cyakira abanyeshuri barenga 17.000 gifite ubuso bwa hegitari 3,310, butuma  ari cyo kinini muri Amerika.

Kaminuza ya Stanford yashinzwe mu 1885 na Leland Stanford – umuyobozi wa gari ya moshi waje kuba  guverineri wa munani wa Californiya nyuma aza no kuyihagararira muri sena.

Nyuma y’urupfu rwa Leland mu 1893, none igice kinini cy’ikigo kikangizwa n’umutingito wabaye i San Francisco mu 1906, Kaminuza ya Stanford yagize ibibazo by’amafaranga.  Ariko nyuma y’Intambara ya Kabiri y’Isi Yose, Frederick Terman, yongeye kubyutsa kaminuza, ashishikariza kandi ashyigikira abarimu n’abanyeshuri barangije kwihangira imirimo. Iyi kaminuza igizwe n’amashuri arindwi n’amashami 45. Iyi kaminuza kandi ifite ikigo cya politiki rusange cyitwa Hoover.

  1. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Ishuri rikuru ry’ikoranabuhanga rya Massachusetts (MIT) ni kaminuza yigenga iherereye i Cambridge, Massachusetts. MIT yashinzwe mu 1861, ifata icyitegererezo kuri za kaminuza zari zikomeye i Burayi hagamijwe gushaka igisubizo kirambye cyo gushimangira inyigisho zikataje mu bumenyi n’ikoranabuhanga biikoreshwa mu nganda zarimo zigenda ziyongera muri Leta zunze ubumwe z’Amerika.

Abize muri MIT bavuyemo kandi abahanga bakomeye mu bumenyi bw’ikirere, abakuru b’ibihugu, abatsindiye igihembo cyitiriwe Nobel, abatsindiye igihembo cya Turing, abarimu n’abashakashatsi.

Ikigo cya MIT kandi cyimakaza bikomeye umuco wo kwihangira imirimo ku buryo benshi mu bahize bashinze cyangwa bafatanya n’abandi gushinga ibigo by’ubucuruzi bizwi. MIT ni umunyamuryango w’ishyirahamwe rya za kaminuza zo muri Amerika (AAU).

Ku rutonde rwa Kaminuza 10 za mbere zikomeye ku isi hagaragaraho kandi ibigo bikurikira:

Kaminuza Aho iherereye Igihe yashingiwe
6. California Institute of Technology California, USA 1891
7. Princeton University New Jersey, USA 1746
8. University of California California, USA 1868
9. Yale University New Haven,USA 1701
10. Imperial College of London London, United Kingdom 1907

Dukomeje no muri Kaminuza 200 za mbere, Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika ni cyo gihugu gihagarariwe cyane muri rusange, gifite ibigo 58 kigakurikirwa n’ Ubwongereza ku mwanya wa kabiri na Canada ku mwanya wa gatatu.

Igihugu cy’Ubushinwa ubu gifite umwanya wa kane n’ibigo 11 muri 200 bya mbere ku isi; kikaza imbere ya Ositaraliya, iri ku mwanya wa gatanu ihuriyeho n’Ubuholandi. Ibihugu bya Afurika bigaragara hafi ku rutonde ni Zambiya, Namibiya, Mozambike, Zimbabwe n’ Ibirwa bya Maurice.

Jean Bosco MUNYANDINDA

 

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